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Some instructors prefer to do the tests in small test tubes. Either approach works well. Size of plastic bags.
The preparation of gases is best done in pint-size zippered bags, although these have been harder to find in recent years. Inquiry to the Ziploc company revealed that pint-size bags are still being manufactured, although many stores choose not to stock them. If quart-size zip-lock bags are used, it may be desirable to generate larger quantities of gases.
Alternatively, instructions can be given on how to roll up the bag from the bottom so that most of the gas is near the zipper area. This facilitates collecting samples of gas in pipets. The success of this investigation depends on being able to rapidly and reproducibly generate sufficient volumes of two gases so that several sub-samples can be removed for testing.
It is strongly recommended that the.
Adjustments in volumes or concentrations can be made as needed. There is a special technique to filling plastic transfer pipets with liquids so that they are nearly full. This should be demonstrated to students. Squeeze the pipet as completely as possible, insert the tip into the desired liquid and release.
If the pipet is the thin-stem variety, the stem can be bent into the liquid while holding the bulb end down and the bulb squeezed a second time to expel more air. Volumes of generated gas. For carbon dioxide, the amount of vinegar used should generate enough gas to slightly under-inflate a pint-size bag and avoid the possibility of bag rupture.
If a bag is over inflated, the zip seal usually opens with a loud pop. If the amount of generated carbon dioxide is not enough, students may need to use larger amounts of vinegar and sodium bicarbonate. For oxygen, the challenge is to produce enough gas without increasing the safety problems of more-concentrated hydrogen peroxide and excessive heat build-up. Stoichiometric calculations give the following theoretical volumes of gas at room temperature, based on the liquid reagents.
For CO2: For O2: Catalyst for O 2 generation. Oxygen is generated by catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Several catalysts can be used for this purpose. The first edition of this Lab Manual used FeCl 3, but the reaction is extremely exothermic with a consequent risk of melting the plastic bag and causing burns.
Yeast was the recommended catalyst for the 2nd and 3rd editions -- it works well and presents no disposal problem, but creates quite a mess in the bags.
Other catalysts are possible, and some instructors may prefer to use their own favorite type. Hydrogen peroxide. Solutions of hydrogen peroxide are unstable and will slowly decompose unless kept cold and in the dark. If there is any uncertainty about the age or concentration of the hydrogen peroxide, the diluted solution should be tested to be sure that one pipet will produce a good volume of gas under the conditions of this investigation.
The dilution can be adjusted as needed. Acid-base Indicator. Bromthymol blue is used in the current edition rather than the phenol red that was used in earlier editions. There are several modest advantages: The pH transition region for bromthymol blue is 6.
It is blue at 7. In dilute solution it can be used to detect CO 2, based on the formation of carbonic acid when CO2 is mixed with water. Many students do not understand the difference between supporting combustion and flammability.
They think oxygen is flammable. Because of the problem of generating enough oxygen without using excessively concentrated hydrogen peroxide, some instructors have students generate oxygen as specified but then give them baggies filled with oxygen from a compressed gas cylinder for the subsequent tests.
Students need to be alerted to use care in sampling gases from the baggies to be sure that the pipet does not touch the liquids or solids inside the bag. If not enough O2 gas is generated to nearly fill the bags: Possible causes: If not enough CO2 gas is generated to nearly fill the bags: If this occurs, the quantities of vinegar and possibly sodium bicarbonate should be increased. If the CaCO3 precipitate is not visible with the limewater test: The amount of precipitate is small, but it should be seen easily when the solution is viewed against a black background.
The most probable source of difficulty is a bad limewater solution, either because it is not saturated or because it was made with an old bottle of calcium hydroxide that had converted to calcium carbonate. An alternate procedure that works well is to use small test tubes for the limewater. A full pipet of CO2 bubbled slowly into the test tube should produce a quite milky mixture.
Use at least 3 full pipets of hydrogen peroxide in each bag. If wellplates are not available: Use small test tubes 10x mm. If bromthymol blue is not available: Slightly pink phenolphthalein solution can be substituted, but the color is less stable due to absorption of carbon dioxide from air.
If the glowing splint toothpick does not burst into flame with oxygen: A quick puff of oxygen is necessary with the end of the pipet held very close to the ember mm away.
One student should hold the splint and one student puff the oxygen at the ember. A number of users have suggested that the splint be thrust into a bag of oxygen. This is not recommended because it often sets the bag on fire.
An alternative to the glowing splint or toothpick is simply a match after it has been blown out.
If the first pipet of gas gives an inconclusive result, they must refill the pipet from the baggie. The contents of all of the bags can be safely flushed down the drain and the bags placed in trash containers. The plastic transfer pipets can be rinsed with water and discarded or saved. The wellplates should be washed and saved for future investigations. Do not rinse the wellplates with acetone. Observations regarding the generation of carbon dioxide.
Observations regarding the generation of oxygen. Reactions with limewater Ca OH 2 solution. Gas Carbon dioxide Oxygen Exhaled air Air. Observations Solution turns cloudy [milky] white No change Solution turns slightly cloudy white No change. Observations Glow goes out Splint bursts into flame No change; splint glows then gradually goes out No change; splint glows then gradually goes out.
Based on your observations in this investigation, what effect will this have on the pH of the oceans? It should lower the pH, making the oceans less basic or more acidic.
List two consequences of ocean acidification. See Chapter 6 of your textbook. Thinning of shells of sea creatures, damage to coral reefs.
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