Download free eBooks of classic literature, books and novels at Planet eBook. Paradise Lost. Book I. Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit . Page 9. Paradise subiecte.info Satan further laments how far he has fallen, from the highest Archangel to the “mazy folds” and “bestial slime” of a serpent, but he. John Milton's Paradise Lost Book 9 (A Critical Analysis by Qaisar Iqbal Janjua) - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free.
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Paradise Lost BOOK 9. John Milton (). THE ARGUMENT. Satan having compast the Earth, with meditated guile returns as a mist by Night into Paradise. Satan having compast the Earth, with meditated guile returns as a mist by Night into Paradise, enters into the Serpent sleeping. Adam and Eve in the Morning go . BOOK I. Of Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit. Of that Forbidden Tree, .. And with their darkness durst affront his light. - 9 -. BOOK I. Milton: Paradise Lost .
Eve , now I see thou art exact of taste, And elegant, of Sapience no small part, Since to each meaning savour we apply, And Palate call judicious; I the praise [ ] Yeild thee, so well this day thou hast purvey'd. She says they can survive by loving each other. Adam, on the other hand, is "waiting desirous for her return" 8. By the age of thirty, Milton had made himself one of the most brilliant minds of England, and one of its most ambitious poets. I from the influence of thy looks receave Access in every Vertue , in thy sight [ ] More wise, more watchful, stronger, if need were Of outward strength; while shame, thou looking on, Shame to be overcome or over- reacht Would utmost vigor raise, and rais'd unite. But neither here seek I, no nor in Heav'n To dwell, unless by maistring Heav'ns Supreame ; [ ] Nor hope to be my self less miserable By what I seek, but others to make such As I, though thereby worse to me redound: But harm precedes not sin:
Sated at length, ere long I might perceave Strange alteration in me, to degree Of Reason in my inward Powers, and Speech [ ] Wanted not long, though to this shape retain'd.
Thenceforth to Speculations high or deep I turnd my thoughts, and with capacious mind Considerd all things visible in Heav'n , Or Earth, or Middle , all things fair and good; [ ] But all that fair and good in thy Divine Semblance, and in thy Beauties heav'nly Ray United I beheld; no Fair to thine Equivalent or second, which compel'd Mee thus, though importune perhaps, to come [ ] And gaze, and worship thee of right declar'd Sovran of Creatures, universal Dame.
So talk'd the spirited sly Snake; and Eve Yet more amaz'd unwarie thus reply'd. Serpent, thy overpraising leaves in doubt [ ] The vertue of that Fruit, in thee first prov'd: But say, where grows the Tree, from hence how far? For many are the Trees of God that grow In Paradise, and various, yet unknown To us, in such abundance lies our choice, [ ] As leaves a greater store of Fruit untoucht , Still hanging incorruptible, till men Grow up to thir provision , and more hands Help to disburden Nature of her Bearth.
To whom the wilie Adder, blithe and glad. Lead then, said Eve. Hee leading swiftly rowld In tangles, and made intricate seem strait , To mischief swift. Hope elevates, and joy Bright'ns his Crest, as when a wandring Fire Compact of unctuous vapor, which the Night [ ] Condenses, and the cold invirons round, Kindl'd through agitation to a Flame, Which oft, they say, some evil Spirit attends Hovering and blazing with delusive Light, Misleads th' amaz'd Night-wanderer from his way [ ] To Boggs and Mires, and oft through Pond or Poole , There swallow'd up and lost, from succour farr.
So glister'd the dire Snake, and into fraud Led Eve our credulous Mother, to the Tree Of prohibition, root of all our woe; [ ] Which when she saw, thus to her guide she spake.
Serpent, we might have spar'd our coming hither, Fruitless to mee , though Fruit be here to excess, The credit of whose vertue rest with thee, Wondrous indeed, if cause of such effects. To whom the Tempter guilefully repli'd. To whom thus Eve yet sinless. She scarse had said, though brief, when now more bold The Tempter, but with shew of Zeale and Love [ ] To Man, and indignation at his wrong, New part puts on, and as to passion mov'd , Fluctuats disturbd , yet comely and in act Rais'd , as of som great matter to begin.
As when of old som Orator renound [ ] In Athens or free Rome , where Eloquence Flourishd , since mute, to som great cause addrest , Stood in himself collected, while each part, Motion, each act won audience ere the tongue, Somtimes in highth began, as no delay [ ] Of Preface brooking through his Zeal of Right.
So standing, moving, or to highth upgrown The Tempter all impassiond thus began. Queen of this Universe, doe not believe Those rigid threats of Death; ye shall not Die: God therefore cannot hurt ye, and be just; [ ] Not just, not God; not feard then, nor obeyd: Your feare it self of Death removes the feare. Why then was this forbid?
Why but to awe, Why but to keep ye low and ignorant, His worshippers; he knows that in the day [ ] Ye Eate thereof, your Eyes that seem so cleere , Yet are but dim, shall perfetly be then Op'nd and cleerd , and ye shall be as Gods , Knowing both Good and Evil as they know.
So ye shall die perhaps, by putting off Human, to put on Gods, death to be wisht , Though threat'nd , which no worse then this can bring. The Gods are first, and that advantage use On our belief, that all from them proceeds; I question it, for this fair Earth I see, [ ] Warm'd by the Sun, producing every kind, Them nothing: If they all things, who enclos'd Knowledge of Good and Evil in this Tree, That whoso eats thereof, forthwith attains Wisdom without their leave? What can your knowledge hurt him, or this Tree Impart against his will if all be his?
Or is it envie , and can envie dwell In Heav'nly brests? Goddess humane, reach then, and freely taste. He ended, and his words replete with guile Into her heart too easie entrance won: Fixt on the Fruit she gaz'd , which to behold [ ] Might tempt alone, and in her ears the sound Yet rung of his perswasive words, impregn'd With Reason, to her seeming, and with Truth; Mean while the hour of Noon drew on, and wak'd An eager appetite, rais'd by the smell [ ] So savorie of that Fruit, which with desire, Inclinable now grown to touch or taste, Sollicited her longing eye; yet first Pausing a while, thus to her self she mus'd.
Great are thy Vertues , doubtless, best of Fruits. Thy praise hee also who forbids thy use, [ ] Conceales not from us, naming thee the Tree Of Knowledge, knowledge both of good and evil; Forbids us then to taste, but his forbidding Commends thee more, while it inferrs the good By thee communicated, and our want: In plain then, what forbids he but to know, Forbids us good, forbids us to be wise?
Such prohibitions binde not. But if Death [ ] Bind us with after-bands, what profits then Our inward freedom? In the day we eate Of this fair Fruit, our doom is, we shall die.
How dies the Serpent? For us alone Was death invented? For Beasts it seems: So saying, her rash hand in evil hour [ ] Forth reaching to the Fruit, she pluck'd , she eat: Earth felt the wound, and Nature from her seat Sighing through all her Works gave signs of woe , That all was lost. Back to the Thicket slunk The guiltie Serpent, and well might, for Eve [ ] Intent now wholly on her taste, naught else Regarded, such delight till then, as seemd , In Fruit she never tasted, whether true Or fansied so, through expectation high Of knowledg , nor was God-head from her thought.
Satiate at length, And hight'nd as with Wine, jocond and boon , Thus to her self she pleasingly began. O Sovran , vertuous , precious of all Trees [ ] In Paradise, of operation blest To Sapience , hitherto obscur'd , infam'd , And thy fair Fruit let hang, as to no end Created; but henceforth my early care, Not without Song, each Morning, and due praise [ ] Shall tend thee, and the fertil burden ease Of thy full branches offer'd free to all; Till dieted by thee I grow mature In knowledge, as the Gods who all things know; Though others envie what they cannot give; [ ] For had the gift bin theirs, it had not here Thus grown.
Experience, next to thee I owe, Best guide; not following thee, I had remaind In ignorance, thou op'nst Wisdoms way, And giv'st access, though secret she retire. But to Adam in what sort Shall I appeer? Confirm'd then I resolve, [ ] Adam shall share with me in bliss or woe: So dear I love him, that with him all deaths I could endure, without him live no life. So saying, from the Tree her step she turnd , But first low Reverence don , as to the power [ ] That dwelt within, whose presence had infus'd Into the plant sciential sap, deriv'd From Nectar, drink of Gods.
Adam the while Waiting desirous her return, had wove Of choicest Flours a Garland to adorne [ ] Her Tresses, and her rural labours crown, As Reapers oft are wont thir Harvest Queen. Great joy he promis'd to his thoughts, and new Solace in her return, so long delay'd ; Yet oft his heart, divine of somthing ill, [ ] Misgave him; hee the faultring measure felt; And forth to meet her went, the way she took That Morn when first they parted; by the Tree Of Knowledge he must pass, there he her met, Scarse from the Tree returning; in her hand [ ] A bough of fairest fruit that downie smil'd , New gatherd , and ambrosial smell diffus'd.
To him she hasted, in her face excuse Came Prologue , and Apologie to prompt, Which with bland words at will she thus addrest. Hast thou not wonderd , Adam , at my stay? Thee I have misst , and thought it long, depriv'd Thy presence, agonie of love till now Not felt, nor shall be twice, for never more Mean I to trie , what rash untri'd I sought , [ ] The pain of absence from thy sight. But strange Hath bin the cause, and wonderful to heare: This Tree is not as we are told, a Tree Of danger tasted, nor to evil unknown Op'ning the way, but of Divine effect [ ] To open Eyes, and make them Gods who taste; And hath bin tasted such: For bliss, as thou hast part, to me is bliss, Tedious, unshar'd with thee , and odious soon.
Thus Eve with Countnance blithe her storie told; But in her Cheek distemper flushing glowd. On th' other side, Adam , soon as he heard The fatal Trespass don by Eve , amaz'd , Astonied stood and Blank, while horror chill [ ] Ran through his veins, and all his joynts relax'd ; From his slack hand the Garland wreath'd for Eve Down drop'd , and all the faded Roses shed: Speechless he stood and pale, till thus at length First to himself he inward silence broke.
O fairest of Creation, last and best Of all Gods works, Creature in whom excell'd Whatever can to sight or thought be formd , Holy, divine, good, amiable, or sweet! How art thou lost, how on a sudden lost, [ ] Defac't , deflourd , and now to Death devote? Rather how hast thou yeelded to transgress The strict forbiddance, how to violate The sacred Fruit forbidd'n! Flesh of Flesh, Bone of my Bone thou art, and from thy State [ ] Mine never shall be parted, bliss or woe.
So having said, as one from sad dismay Recomforted, and after thoughts disturbd Submitting to what seemd remediless, Thus in calm mood his Words to Eve he turnd. Bold deed thou hast presum'd , adventrous Eve And peril great provok't , who thus hath dar'd Had it been onely coveting to Eye That sacred Fruit, sacred to abstinence, Much more to taste it under banne to touch.
Not God Omnipotent, nor Fate, yet so Perhaps thou shalt not Die, perhaps the Fact Is not so hainous now, foretasted Fruit, Profan'd first by the Serpent, by him first [ ] Made common and unhallowd ere our taste; Nor yet on him found deadly, he yet lives, Lives, as thou saidst , and gaines to live as Man Higher degree of Life, inducement strong To us, as likely tasting to attaine [ ] Proportional ascent, which cannot be But to be Gods, or Angels Demi-gods. Nor can I think that God, Creator wise, Though threatning , will in earnest so destroy Us his prime Creatures, dignifi'd so high, [ ] Set over all his Works, which in our Fall, For us created, needs with us must faile , Dependent made; so God shall uncreate, Be frustrate, do, undo, and labour loose , Not well conceav'd of God, who though his Power [ ] Creation could repeate , yet would be loath Us to abolish, least the Adversary Triumph and say; Fickle their State whom God Most Favors, who can please him long; Mee first He ruind , now Mankind; whom will he next?
So Adam , and thus Eve to him repli'd. Ingaging me to emulate, but short Of thy perfection, how shall I attaine , Adam , from whose deare side I boast me sprung, [ ] And gladly of our Union heare thee speak, One Heart, one Soul in both; whereof good prooff This day affords, declaring thee resolvd , Rather then Death or aught then Death more dread Shall separate us, linkt in Love so deare , [ ] To undergoe with mee one Guilt, one Crime, If any be, of tasting this fair Fruit, Whose vertue , for of good still good proceeds, Direct, or by occasion hath presented This happie trial of thy Love, which else [ ] So eminently never had bin known.
Were it I thought Death menac't would ensue This my attempt, I would sustain alone The worst, and not perswade thee, rather die Deserted, then oblige thee with a fact [ ] Pernicious to thy Peace, chiefly assur'd Remarkably so late of thy so true, So faithful Love unequald ; but I feel Farr otherwise th' event, not Death, but Life Augmented, op'nd Eyes, new Hopes, new Joyes , [ ] Taste so Divine, that what of sweet before Hath toucht my sense, flat seems to this, and harsh.
On my experience, Adam , freely taste, And fear of Death deliver to the Windes. So saying, she embrac'd him, and for joy [ ] Tenderly wept, much won that he his Love Had so enobl'd , as of choice to incurr Divine displeasure for her sake, or Death. In recompence for such compliance bad Such recompence best merits from the bough [ ] She gave him of that fair enticing Fruit With liberal hand: Earth trembl'd from her entrails, as again [ ] In pangs, and Nature gave a second groan, Skie lowr'd , and muttering Thunder, som sad drops Wept at compleating of the mortal Sin Original; while Adam took no thought, Eating his fill, nor Eve to iterate [ ] Her former trespass fear'd , the more to soothe Him with her lov'd societie , that now As with new Wine intoxicated both They swim in mirth, and fansie that they feel Divinitie within them breeding wings [ ] Wherewith to scorne the Earth: Eve , now I see thou art exact of taste, And elegant, of Sapience no small part, Since to each meaning savour we apply, And Palate call judicious; I the praise [ ] Yeild thee, so well this day thou hast purvey'd.
Much pleasure we have lost, while we abstain'd From this delightful Fruit, nor known till now True relish, tasting; if such pleasure be In things to us forbidden, it might be wish'd , [ ] For this one Tree had bin forbidden ten.
But come, so well refresh't , now let us play, As meet is, after such delicious Fare; For never did thy Beautie since the day I saw thee first and wedded thee, adorn'd [ ] With all perfections, so enflame my sense With ardor to enjoy thee, fairer now Then ever, bountie of this vertuous Tree. So said he, and forbore not glance or toy Of amorous intent, well understood [ ] Of Eve , whose Eye darted contagious Fire. Her hand he seis'd , and to a shadie bank, Thick overhead with verdant roof imbowr'd He led her nothing loath; Flours were the Couch , Pansies, and Violets, and Asphodel, [ ] And Hyacinth, Earths freshest softest lap.
There they thir fill of Love and Loves disport Took largely, of thir mutual guilt the Seale , The solace of thir sin, till dewie sleep Oppress'd them, wearied with thir amorous play. O Eve , in evil hour thou didst give eare To that false Worm, of whomsoever taught To counterfet Mans voice, true in our Fall, False in our promis'd Rising; since our Eyes [ ] Op'nd we find indeed, and find we know Both Good and Evil, Good lost, and Evil got, Bad Fruit of Knowledge, if this be to know, Which leaves us naked thus, of Honour void, Of Innocence, of Faith, of Puritie , [ ] Our wonted Ornaments now soild and staind , And in our Faces evident the signes Of foul concupiscence; whence evil store; Even shame, the last of evils; of the first Be sure then.
How shall I behold the face [ ] Henceforth of God or Angel, earst with joy And rapture so oft beheld? O might I here In solitude live savage, in some glade [ ] Obscur'd , where highest Woods impenetrable To Starr or Sun-light, spread thir umbrage broad, And brown as Evening: So counsel'd hee , and both together went Into the thickest Wood, there soon they chose [ ] The Figtree, not that kind for Fruit renown'd , But such as at this day to Indians known In Malabar or Decan spreds her Armes Braunching so broad and long, that in the ground The bended Twigs take root, and Daughters grow [ ] About the Mother Tree, a Pillard shade High overarch't , and echoing Walks between; There oft the Indian Herdsman shunning heate Shelters in coole , and tends his pasturing Herds At Loopholes cut through thickest shade: Those Leaves [ ] They gatherd , broad as Amazonian Targe , And with what skill they had, together sowd , To gird thir waste , vain Covering if to hide Thir guilt and dreaded shame; O how unlike To that first naked Glorie.
Thus fenc't , and as they thought, thir shame in part Coverd , but not at rest or ease of Mind, [ ] They sate them down to weep, nor onely Teares Raind at thir Eyes, but high Winds worse within Began to rise, high Passions, Anger, Hate, Mistrust, Suspicion, Discord, and shook sore Thir inward State of Mind, calm Region once [ ] And full of Peace, now tost and turbulent: For Understanding rul'd not, and the Will Heard not her lore, both in subjection now To sensual Appetite, who from beneathe Usurping over sovran Reason claimd [ ] Superior sway: From thus distemperd brest , Adam , estrang'd in look and alterd stile , Speech intermitted thus to Eve renewd.
Would thou hadst heark'nd to my words, and stai'd With me, as I besought thee, when that strange [ ] Desire of wandring this unhappie Morn, I know not whence possessd thee; we had then Remaind still happie , not as now, despoild Of all our good, sham'd , naked, miserable. Let none henceforth seek needless cause to approve [ ] The Faith they owe; when earnestly they seek Such proof, conclude, they then begin to faile.
To whom soon mov'd with touch of blame thus Eve. What words have past thy Lips, Adam severe, Imput'st thou that to my default, or will [ ] Of wandring , as thou call'st it, which who knows But might as ill have happ'nd thou being by, Or to thy self perhaps: Was I to have never parted from thy side?
As good have grown there still a liveless Rib. Being as I am, why didst not thou the Head [ ] Command me absolutely not to go, Going into such danger as thou saidst?
Too facil then thou didst not much gainsay, Nay, didst permit, approve, and fair dismiss. Hadst thou bin firm and fixt in thy dissent, [ ] Neither had I transgress'd , nor thou with mee. To whom then first incenst Adam repli'd , Is this the Love, is this the recompence Of mine to thee, ingrateful Eve , exprest Immutable when thou wert lost, not I, [ ] Who might have liv'd and joyd immortal bliss, Yet willingly chose rather Death with thee: And am I now upbraided, as the cause Of thy transgressing?
But confidence then bore thee on, secure [ ] Either to meet no danger, or to finde Matter of glorious trial; and perhaps I also err'd in overmuch admiring What seemd in thee so perfet , that I thought No evil durst attempt thee, but I rue [ ] That errour now, which is become my crime, And thou th' accuser.
Thus it shall befall Him who to worth in Women overtrusting Lets her Will rule; restraint she will not brook, And left to her self, if evil thence ensue, [ ] Shee first his weak indulgence will accuse.
Thus they in mutual accusation spent The fruitless hours, but neither self-condemning, And of thir vain contest appeer'd no end. NO more of talk where God or Angel Guest With Man, as with his Friend, familiar us'd To sit indulgent, and with him partake Rural repast, permitting him the while Venial discourse unblam'd: After excelling at St. Paul's he entered Christ's College at Cambridge University.
There he made a name for himself with his prodigious writing, publishing several essays and poems to high acclaim. After graduating with his master's degree in , Milton. Milton was allowed to take over the family's estate near Windsor and pursue a quiet life of study. He spent to —his mid to late twenties—reading the classics in Greek and Latin, and learning new theories in mathematics and music. His knowledge of most of these languages was immense and precocious.
He wrote sonnets in Italian as a teenager. While a second-year student at Cambridge, he was invited to address the first-year students in a speech written entirely in Latin. By the age of thirty, Milton had made himself one of the most brilliant minds of England, and one of its most ambitious poets.
He had built a firm poetic foundation through his intense study of languages, philosophy, and politics, and he infused it with his uncanny sense of tone and diction.
Even in these early poems, Milton's literary output was guided by his faith in God. Milton believed that all poetry serves a social, philosophical, and religious purpose.
He thought that poetry should glorify God, enlighten readers, and help people to become better Christians. Aside from his poetic successes, Milton was also a prolific writer of essays and pamphlets. These prose writings did not bring Milton public acclaim. In fact, since his essays and pamphlets argued against the established views of most of England, the pamphlets made Milton the object of threats. Nevertheless, he continued to express his political and theological beliefs in essays and pamphlets.
He believed that power corrupts human beings and distrusted anyone who could claim power over anyone else. Milton believed that rulers should have to prove their right to lead other people. Milton was an activist in his middle years, fighting for human rights and against the rule of England's leaders, whom he believed were inept.
Knowing he was not a physical fighter, he fought by writing lengthy, 3 By Qaisar Iqbal Janjua Contact: Although he championed liberty and fought against authority throughout his career, Milton believed in the strict social and political hierarchy in which people, in theory, would obey their leaders and the leaders would serve their people.
He knew this system would work only if the leaders were actually better and fit to rule than their subjects. He objected to the hierarchy that actually existed in his day because he thought its leaders extremely corrupt. He directly challenged the rule of Charles I, the king of England during much of his lifetime.
Milton argued that Charles was not fit to lead his subjects because he did not possess superior faculties or virtues. Milton was a Presbyterian. Presbyterians called for the abolishment of bishops. He thought the division of Protestants into more and smaller denominations was a sign of healthy self-examination, and believed that each individual Christian should be his own church, unencumbered by an establishment.
These beliefs, expressed in a great number of pamphlets, prompted his break with the Presbyterians. From that point on, Milton advocated the complete abolishment of all church establishments, and he kept his own private religion that was close to the Calvinism practised by Presbyterians but different in some ways.
It comes from his personal ethos, but it speaks to all the Christians. In his later years, Milton came to view all the organized Christian churches, whether Anglican, Catholic or Presbyterian, as obstacles to true faith. He felt that the conscience of the individual was a more powerful tool than the church in interpreting the Word of God. Paradise Lost takes a number of Protestant stances: Nonetheless, the poem does not present a unified, cohesive Christian theology, nor does it attempt to identify disbelievers, redefine Christianity, or replace the Bible.
Instead, Milton's epic stands as a remarkable presentation of biblical stories meant to engage the Christian readers and help them be better Christians. In Book IV he suggests that men are superior to women, alluding to biblical passages that identify man as the head of woman. He never suggests, as many did at the time, that women are utterly inferior or evil.
Adam voices a harsh view of womankind only after the fall, when Satan has poisoned the naturally idyllic relationship between men and women.
He fought for the right to divorce in an age when nearly all denominations prohibited divorce except in some cases of adultery. But in his Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, Milton expresses his belief that any sort of incompatibility, be it sexual, mental, or spiritual, justifies divorce.
In the same essay, he argues that the main purpose of marriage is not necessarily procreation, as most people thought at that time, but the joining of two people into one unified being.
He felt that conversation and mental companionship were supremely important in a marriage and seems to blame mental incompatibility for his own failed marriage. Milton believed that the partners in a marriage must complement each other, as Adam and Eve do, compensating for faults and enhancing strengths.
Satan and his lieutenant Beelzebub get up from the lake and yell to the others to rise and join them. Music plays and banners fly as the army of rebel angels comes to attention, tormented and defeated but faithful to their general.
They create a great and terrible temple, perched on a volcano top, and Satan calls a council there to decide on their course of action. The fallen angels give various suggestions. Finally, Beelzebub suggests that they take the battle to a new battlefield, a place called earth where, it is rumoured, God has created a new being called man.
Man is not as powerful as the angels, but he is God's chosen favourite among his creations. Beelzebub suggests that they seek revenge against God by seducing man to their corrupted side.
Satan volunteers to explore this new place himself and finds out more about man so that he may corrupt him. His fallen army unanimously agrees by banging on their swords. Satan takes off to the gates of hell, guarded by his daughter, Sin, and their horrible son, Death. Sin agrees to open the gates for her creator and rapist , knowing that she will follow him and reign with him in whatever kingdom he conquers. Satan then travels through chaos, and finally arrives at earth, connected to heaven by a golden chain.
His Son offers to die a mortal death to bring man back into the grace and light of God. God agrees and tells how his Son will be born to a virgin. God then makes his Son the king of man, son of both man and God. Meanwhile, Satan disguises himself as a handsome cherub in order to get by the angel Uriel who is guarding earth.
Uriel is impressed that an angel would come all the way from heaven to witness God's creation, and points the Garden of Eden out to Satan. Satan makes his way into the Garden and is in awe at the beauty of Eden and of the handsome couple of Adam and Eve.
For a moment, he deeply regrets his fall from grace. This feeling soon turns, however, to hatred. Uriel, however, has realized that he has been fooled by Satan and tells the angel Gabriel as much. Gabriel finds Satan in the Garden and sends him away. God, seeing how things are going, sends Raphael to warn Adam and Eve about Satan. Raphael goes down to the Garden and is invited for dinner by Adam and Eve.
While there, he narrates how Satan came to fall and the subsequent battle that was held in heaven. Satan first sin. Satan was one of the top angels in heaven and did not understand why he should bow. Satan called a council and convinced many of the angels who were beneath him to join in fighting God. On the second day, Satan seemed to gain ground by constructing artillery, literally cannons, and turning them against the good forces. This is the reason, Raphael explains, and that God created man: Raphael then tells of how God created man and the entire universe in seven days.
Adam himself remembers the moment he was created and, as well, how he came to ask God for a companion, Eve. Raphael leaves. The next morning, Eve insists on working separately from Adam. Satan, in the form of serpent, finds her working alone and starts to flatter her. Eve asks where he learned to speak, and Satan shows her the Tree of Knowledge. Although Eve knows that this was the one tree God had forbidden that they eat from, she is told by Satan that this is only because God knows she will become a goddess herself.
Eve eats the fruit and then decides to share it with Adam. Adam, clearly, is upset that Eve disobeyed God, but he cannot imagine a life without her so he eats the apple as well. They both, then, satiate their newborn lust in the bushes and wake up ashamed, knowing now the difference from good and evil and, therefore, being able to choose evil.
They spend the afternoon blaming each other for their fall. God sends the Son down to judge the two disobedient creatures. The Son condemns Eve, and all of womankind, to painful childbirths and submission to her husband. He condemns Adam to a life of a painful battle with nature and hard work at getting food from the ground. He condemns the serpent to always crawl on the ground on its belly, always at the heel of Eve's sons.
Satan, in the meantime, returns to hell victorious. On the way, he meets Sin and Death, who have built a bridge from hell to earth, to mankind, whom they will now reign over. When Satan arrives in hell, however, he finds his fallen compatriots not cheering as he had wished, but hissing.
The reason behind the horrible hissing soon becomes clear: Even Satan finds himself turning into a horrible snake. Adam and Eve, after bitterly blaming each other, finally decide to turn to God and ask for forgiveness.
God hears them and agrees with his Son that he will not lose mankind completely to Sin, Death and Satan. Instead, he will send his son as a man to earth to sacrifice himself and, in so doing, conquer the evil trinity. Michael is sent by God to escort Adam and Eve out of the Garden.
Before he does, however, he tells Adam what will become of mankind until the Son comes down to earth. The history of mankind actually the history of the Jewish people as narrated in the Hebrew Bible will be a series of falls from grace and acceptance back by God, from Noah and the Flood to the Babylonian exile of the Jewish people.
Adam is thankful that the Son will come down and right what he and Eve have done wrong. He calls on a heavenly muse and asks for help in relating his ambitious story.
The narrator begins his story with Satan and his fellow rebel angels, now devils, who wake to find themselves chained to a lake of fire in Hell.
Inside Pandemonium, the rebel angels hold a meeting to debate a plan of action. Satan agrees and volunteers to go himself. As he prepares to leave Hell, his children, Sin and Death, meet him at the gates and follow him, building a bridge between Hell and Earth.
In Heaven, God orders the angels together for a council of their own. Meanwhile, Satan travels through Night and Chaos and finds Earth. He disguises himself as a cherub to get past the Archangel Uriel, who stands guard at the Sun. Satan then lands on Earth and looks around. Seeing the splendour of Paradise pains him. He reaffirms his decision to do evil and commit crimes against the God.
Looking down at Satan from his post, Uriel notices the volatile emotions reflected in the face of this so-called cherub and warns the other angels that an impostor is in their midst. The other angels agree to search the Garden for intruders. Meanwhile, Adam and Eve tend the Garden, carefully obeying God's order to refrain from eating from the Tree of Knowledge.
After a long day of work, they return to their bower, pray, and make love. Gabriel, the angel set to guard Paradise, finds Satan in the bower and orders him to leave.
Satan prepares to battle Gabriel, but God makes the golden scales of justice appear in the sky as a sign, and Satan scurries away. Eve awakes and tells Adam about a dream she had in which an angel tempted her to eat from the forbidden tree. Worried about the safety of the humans he created, God sends Raphael down to Earth to teach Adam and Eve of the danger Satan poses.
After the meal, Eve goes inside, and Raphael and Adam speak alone. Satan grew envious after God appointed his Son as second-in-command. Satan gathered together other angels who were also angry at the favour shown to the Son, and together they plotted a war against God. The angels began to fight.
The battle ended after two days when God commanded the Son to end the war and send Satan and his rebel angels to Hell. Adam asks Raphael to tell him the story of creation. Raphael tells Adam that God sent the Son into Chaos to create the universe. He created the earth and stars and other planets. Curious, Adam asks Raphael about the movement of the stars and planets.
Raphael bridles at Adam's seemingly unquenchable search for knowledge, telling him he will learn all he needs to know, and any other knowledge is not meant for humans to comprehend.
Adam tells Raphael about his first memories, of waking up and wondering who he was, what he was, and where he was. Adam says that God spoke to him and told him many things, among them an order not to eat from the Tree of Knowledge. Adam confesses to Raphael his intense physical attraction to Eve. Raphael tells Adam that he must love Eve more purely and spiritually. After this final bit of advice, Raphael leaves Earth and returns to Heaven.
Eight days after his banishment, Satan returns to Paradise. After closely studying the animals there, he chooses to take the form of the serpent. Eve suggests to Adam that they work separately for a while, so they can get more work done.
Adam hesitates but eventually assents. Satan searches for Eve and to his delight find her alone. Still in serpent form, he talks to Eve and praises her beauty and godliness. He tells her eating from the Tree of Knowledge gave him the power of speech. Satan says that God knows the fruit will give Adam and Eve godlike powers, and he banned it because he wanted to keep them in ignorance. Eve hesitates but then reaches for a fruit from the Tree of Knowledge and eats. She determines that Adam should share her fate, and goes to find him.
Adam has been busy making a wreath of flowers for Eve. He is horrified to find that Eve has eaten from the forbidden tree. Knowing that she has fallen, he decides he would rather fall with her than remain pure and lose her.
He eats from the fruit. Adam looks at Eve in a new way, and they have sex lustfully. Without rancour, out of a sense of justice, he tells the angels in Heaven that Adam and Eve must be punished. He sends the Son to punish them. The Son first punishes the serpent whose body Satan took, condemning it to slither on its belly forever. Then the Son tells Adam and Eve they must suffer pain and death because of their sin.
Women and men will lose their idyllic partnership and work in separate spheres. Eve and all women will endure the pain of childbirth and submit to their husbands, and Adam and all men will hunt and grow their own food on a depleted Earth. Satan returns to Hell where cheers greet him. He speaks to the devils in Pandemonium, and everyone believes that he has beaten God.
Sin and Death travel the bridge they built on their way to Earth. They try to reach fruit from imaginary trees, but find that it turns to ashes in their mouths. God tells the angels to transform Earth. Humankind must now suffer hot and cold seasons instead of the consistent temperatures they enjoyed before sinning.
On Earth, Adam and Eve fear their approaching doom. They blame each other for their disobedience and become increasingly angry. In a fit of rage, Adam wonders why God ever created Eve. Eve begs Adam not to abandon her. She says they can survive by loving each other.
She accepts blame, for it was she who disobeyed both God and Adam. She ponders suicide. Adam, moved by her speech, forbids her from taking her own life. He remembers their punishment and believes that they can enact revenge on Satan by remaining obedient to God. Together they pray to God and repent. God hears their prayers, and sends Michael down to Earth. Michael tells them that they must leave Paradise. Horrified, he asks Michael if there is any alternative to death.
He sees generations of humans sinning by lust, greed, envy, and pride. They kill each other selfishly and live only for pleasure.
Then Michael shows him Enoch, who is saved by God as his warring peers attempt to kill him. Adam also sees Noah and his family, whose virtue makes God choose them to survive the flood that kills all other humans. Next is the vision of Nimrod and the Tower of Babel. This story explains the perversion of pure language into the many languages that are spoken on Earth today. Adam sees the triumph of Moses and the Israelites and then glimpses the Son sacrificing his life to save humankind.
After this vision, Adam and Eve must leave Paradise. Led by Michael, Adam and Eve woefully leave Paradise, going hand in hand into a new world. He continues an eternal battle with God and goodness for the souls of human beings.
Satan, at first, is an angel with a single fault, pride, but throughout the story he becomes physically and morally more and more corrupt. GOD The Absolute, ruler of heaven, creator of earth and all of creation, God is all seeing, though he seems to pay less attention to things further away from his light.
God has a sense of humour, and laughs at the follies of Satan and seems to be a firm and just ruler. The Son of God is more sympathetic to the plight of mankind and often advocates on behalf of him in front of God. The Holy Spirit is, in fact, the creature through whom the Old and New Testament were written according to Christians; therefore he is the best vehicle from which Milton can draw the truth.
The three form the unholy trinity in contrast to God, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Sin is sent to hell with Satan and stands guard at hell's gates. She is a horrible looking thing, half serpent, half woman, with hellhounds circling her. She will invade earth and mankind after Satan causes Adam and Eve to fall. He is a dark, gigantic form who guards the gates of hell with Sin.
He, too, will reign on earth after Satan causes the Fall. Death, however, will plague not only men and women, but all living creatures on earth down to the smallest plant. Death, as a terminal end, will be defeated when God sends his Son Jesus Christ to earth. ADAM First created man, father of all mankind, Adam is created a just and ordered creature, living in joy, praising God.
Lonely, Adam will ask for a companion and will thereafter feel deep and uncontrollable, though ordered, love for her, named Eve. This love will ultimately get Adam in trouble, as he decides to disobey God rather than leave her.
Adam has free will and, by the end of the poem, also has the knowledge of good and evil.