Fluid Mechanics Fox and Mcdonalds 8th Edition - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Fluid Mechanics Fox and. Fox and McDonald Introduction to fluid mechanics 9th subiecte.info For educational purposes only please!. FLUID. MECHANICS. SIXTH EDITION. ROBERT W. FOX. Purdue Unive;ity. ALAN T. McDONALD. Purdue University. PHILIP J. PRITCHARD. Manhattan College.
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Fox and McDonald's. INTRODUCTION. TO. FLUID. MECHANICS. EIGHTH .. Additional Text Topics: PDF files for these topics/sections are available only on the. Fox and McDonald's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 8th Edition .. Additional Text Topics: PDF files for these topics/sections are available only on the Web site. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 6th Edition Fox, Mcdonald & Pritchard (Optimized ) - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free.
Kindly share this post with your friends to make this exclusive release more useful. Syllabi appropriate for use in teaching a one-semester course in fluid mechanics are provided. June Find the weight of water in the container, and its volume in cubic feet, using data from Appendix A. Note that the size of the gas molecules is greatly exaggerated they would be almost invisible even at this scale and that we have placed velocity vectors only on a small sample.
These copies are licensed and may not be sold or transferred to a third party. Upon completion of the review period, please return the evaluation copy to Wiley. Return instructions and a free of charge return shipping label are available at www. Outside of the United States, please contact your local representative. Preface Introduction This text is written for an introductory course in fluid mechan- ics. Our approach to the subject, emphasizes the physical concepts of fluid mechanics and methods of analysis that begin from basic principles.
The primary objective of this text is to help users develop an orderly approach to problem sol- ving. Thus we always start from governing equations, state assumptions clearly, and try to relate mathematical results to corresponding physical behavior.
We emphasize the use of control volumes to maintain a practical problem-solving approach that is also theoretically inclusive.
Proven Problem-Solving Methodology The Fox-McDonald solution methodology used in this text is illustrated in numerous examples in each chapter. Solutions presented in the examples have been prepared to illustrate good solution technique and to explain difficult points of theory. Examples are set apart in format from the text so that they are easy to identify and follow.
We urge you to study this section carefully and to integrate the suggested procedures into your problem-solving and results-presentation approaches. SI and English Units SI units are used in about 70 percent of both example and end- of-chapter problems.
English Engineering units are retained in the remaining problems to provide experience with this traditional system and to highlight conversions among unit systems. Goals and Advantages of Using This Text Complete explanations presented in the text, together with numerous detailed examples, make this book understandable for students, freeing the instructor to depart from conventional lecture teaching methods.
Classroom time can be used to bring in outside material, expand on special topics such as non-Newtonian flow, boundary-layer flow, lift and drag, or experimental methods , solve example problems, or explain difficult points of assigned homework problems. In addition, many example Excel workbooks have been developed for pre- senting a variety of fluid mechanics phenomena, especially the effects produced when varying input parameters. Thus each class period can be used in the manner most appropriate to meet student needs.
When students finish the fluid mechanics course, we expect them to be able to apply the governing equations to a variety of problems, including those they have not encountered previ- ously. We particularly emphasize physical concepts throughout to help students model the variety of phenomena that occur in real fluid flow situations. By following this format, we believe students develop confi- dence in their ability to apply the material and to find that they can reason out solutions to rather challenging problems.
The book is well suited for independent study by students or practicing engineers. Its readability and clear examples help build confidence.
Answers to selected problems are included, so students may check their own work. Topical Coverage The material has been selected carefully to include a broad range of topics suitable for a one- or two-semester course at the junior or senior level.
We assume a background in rigid- body dynamics, mathematics through differential equations, and thermodynamics.
More advanced material, not typically covered in a first course, has been moved to the website these sections are identified in the Table of Contents as being on the website.
Advanced material is available online at www. Material in the printed text has been organized into broad topic areas: The Bernoulli equation is derived as an example application of the basic equations to a differential control volume.
Being able to use the Bernoulli equation in Chapter 4 allows us to include more challenging problems deal- ing with the momentum equation for finite control volumes. If an instructor chooses to delay intro- ducing the Bernoulli equation, the challenging problems from Chapter 4 may be assigned during study of Chapter 6.
Text Features This edition incorporates a number of features that enhance learning: Although this is a convenience, we cannot stress enough the need for the student to understand the assumptions and limitations of each equation before using it! Where appropriate, we have provided open-ended design problems. Students could be assigned to work in teams to solve these problems. Design problems encourage students to spend more time exploring applica- tions of fluid mechanics principles to the design of devices and systems.
As in the previous edition, design problems are included with the end-of-chapter problems. We have included many open- ended problems.
We hope these problems will help instruc- tors to encourage their students to think and work in more dynamic ways, as well as to inspire each instructor to develop and use more open-ended problems. Problems in each chapter are arranged by topic, and grouped according to the chapter section headings. Within each topic they generally increase in complexity or difficulty.
This makes it easy for the instructor to assign homework problems at the appropriate difficulty level for each section of the book. Answers to odd-numbered problems are listed at the end of the book as a useful aid for students to check their understanding of the material. New to This Edition This edition incorporates a number of significant changes: Many new end-of-chapter homework problems have been developed, with the result that about 30 percent of the pro- blems have not appeared in previous editions.
These new pro- blems were selected to require a spectrum of skills and concepts. At one end of the spectrum are those problems that focus on a single concept, which allows students to test their understanding of basic material.
At the other end are challeng- ing situations that bring in several concepts and advanced problem-solving skills, which allows students to assess their ability to integrate the material. This wide spectrum allows the instructor to match the complexity of the problem to stu- dent ability, facilitating the assignment of more challenging problems as students master the subject.
Each chapter is introduced with a case study that is an interesting and novel application of the material in the chapter. Our goal is to illustrate the broad range of areas that fall within the discipline of fluid mechanics.
In general, these are special- ized subjects that cannot be covered in depth in a text such as this one. We hope that these case studies stimulate the student to explore further and not feel limited by the topics that can be covered in this text. Often, fluid behavior can best be understood though visu- alization techniques that capture the dynamics of a flowing fluid.
For many of the chapter subjects, short videos are avail- able that illustrate a specific phenomenon. We also include references to much more extensive collections of videos on a wide range of fluid mechanics topics.
We encourage both students and instructors to use these videos to gain insight into the actual behavior of fluids. The subject of compressible fluid flow was covered in two chapters in previous editions.
These two chapters have now been combined into one and the more advanced material Fanno flow, Rayleigh flow, and oblique shock and expansion waves has been removed from the text. These sections and the corresponding problems are available on the companion web- site for instructors and students.
They provide an excellent introduction for those interested in a more in-depth study of compressible flow. The coverage of compressible flow in the current edition parallels the coverage of open-channel flow, emphasizing the similarity between the two topics.
Resources for Instructors The following resources are available to instructors who adopt this text. Visit the companion website www. The solutions manual for this edition contains a complete, detailed solution for all homework problems.
The expected solution difficulty is indicated, and each solution is prepared in the same systematic way as the example solutions in the printed text. Each solution begins from governing equations, clearly states assump- tions, reduces governing equations to computing equations, obtains an algebraic result, and finally substitutes numerical values to obtain a quantitative answer.
Solutions may be reproduced for classroom or library use, eliminating the labor of problem solving for the instructor. A list of all problems that are renumbered from the eighth edition of this title, to the ninth edition. Lecture slides outline the con- cepts in the book and include appropriate illustrations and equations. Illustrations are taken from the text in a for- mat appropriate to include in lecture presentations. Syllabi appropriate for use in teaching a one-semester course in fluid mechanics are provided.
First-time instructors will find these a helpful guide to creat- ing an appropriate emphasis on the different topics.
These additional topics sup- plement the material in the text. The topics covered are fluids in rigid body motion, accelerating control volumes, the unsteady Bernoulli equation, the classical laminar boundary layer solution, and compressible flow Fanno flow, Rayleigh flow, and oblique shock and expansion waves. These online-only sections also include appropriate end-of-chapter problems.
Excerpts from these longer films are often helpful in explaining fluid phenomena. A Brief Review of Microsoft Excel: Prepared by Philip Pritchard, this online-only resource coaches stu- dents in setting up and solving fluid mechanics problems using Excel spreadsheets.
These Excel files and add-ins are for use with specific examples from the text. This online-only material will aid students in using Excel to solve the end-of-chapter problems. The same additional topics provided to instructors are also available to students.
The videos referenced by icons throughout the text and in Appendix B are accessed from the website. WileyPLUS WileyPLUS is an online learning and assessment environment, where students test their understanding of concepts, get feed- back on their answers, and access learning materials like the eText and multimedia resources.
Acknowledgments This ninth edition represents another step in the evolution of this classic text to meet the needs of students and instructors in fluid mechanics. It continues the tradition of providing a pedagogically sound introduction to the subject of fluids as created by the original authors, Robert Fox and Alan McDonald. Their focus on the fundamentals provides a solid grounding for those students who take only one course in fluids, and additionally gives those students who con- tinue their studies in the subject a strong base for advanced topics.
Even though the original authors have not been involved with the later editions, we have tried to preserve their enthusi- asm for the subject and their personal insights into fluid behav- ior. Over the years, many students and faculty have provided additional end-of-chapter problems and new material that have shaped subsequent editions of this book.
The current edition thus contains the input of many instructors and researchers in the fluids field that supplements and supports the approach of the original authors. It is not possible to acknowledge all of the contributors individually, but their collective efforts have been crucial to the success of this text.
In particular, Philip J. Pritchard, the author of the previous edition, introduced many significant revisions in the text and the online material that are included in this ninth edition. We hope that colleagues and others who use this book continue to provide input, for their contributions are essential to maintaining the quality and rel- evance of this work.
Mitchell July viiPreface Manometers 52 Gases 57 3. Exact Solution www. Flow over a Sphere and Cylinder Streamlining 9. The Euler Turbomachine Equation x Contents Applications to Fluid Systems Blowers and Fans Minimum Specific Energy We have tried to present novel developments that show the ongoing importance of the field of fluid mechanics.
Wind Power According to the July 16, , edition of the New York Times, the global wind energy potential is much higher than previously esti- mated by both wind industry groups and government agencies. In the lower 48 states, the potential from wind power is 16 times more than total electricity demand in the United States, the researchers suggested, again much higher than a Department of Energy study that projected wind could supply a fifth of all electricity in the country by One reason for the new estimate is due to the increasingly common use of very large turbines that rise to almost m, where wind speeds are greater.
Previous wind studies were based on the use of to m turbines. In addition, to reach even higher elevations and hence wind speed , two approaches have been proposed. One of these is a design of KiteGen shown in the figure , consisting of tethered airfoils kites manipulated by a control unit and connected to a ground-based, carousel-shaped generator; the kites are maneuvered so that they drive the carousel, generating power, possibly as much as MW. This approach would be best for the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere.
To start toward this goal, in this chapter we cover some very basic topics: Finally, we discuss some common engineering student pitfalls in areas such as unit systems and experimental analysis. Note to Students This is a student-oriented book: We believe it is quite comprehensive for an introductory text, and a student can successfully self-teach from it. However, most students will use the text in conjunction with one or two undergraduate courses.
In either case, we recommend a thorough reading of the relevant chapters. In fact, a good approach is to read a chapter quickly once, then reread more carefully a second and even a third time, so that concepts develop a context and meaning.
Other sources of information on fluid mechanics are readily available. There are some prerequisites for reading this text. We assume you have already studied introductory thermodynamics, as well as statics, dynamics, and calculus; however, as needed, we will review some of this material. It is our strong belief that one learns best by doing. This is true whether the subject under study is fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, or soccer. The fundamentals in any of these are few, and mastery of them comes through practice.
Thus it is extremely important that you solve problems. The numerous problems included at the end of each chapter provide the opportunity to practice applying fundamentals to the solution of problems. Even though we provide for your convenience a summary of useful equa- tions at the end of each chapter except this one , you should avoid the temptation to adopt a so-called plug-and-chug approach to solving problems.
Most of the problems are such that this approach simply will not work. In solving problems we strongly recommend that you proceed using the following log- ical steps: Be sure to label the boundaries of the system or control volume and label appropriate coordinate directions.
In the design proposed by Sky Windpower, four rotors are mounted on an airframe; the rotors both provide lift for the device and power electricity generation. The aircraft would lift themselves into place with supplied electricity to reach the desired altitude but would then generate up to 40 MW of power. Multiple arrays could be used for large-scale electricity generation.
In your initial work this problem format may seem unnecessary and even long-winded. However, it is our experience that this approach to problem solving is ultimately the most efficient; it will also prepare you to be a successful professional, for which a major prerequisite is to be able to communicate infor- mation and the results of an analysis clearly and precisely.
This format is used in all examples presented in this text; answers to examples are rounded to three significant figures. Finally, we strongly urge you to take advantage of the many Excel tools available for this book on the text website for use in solving problems. Many problems can be solved much more quickly using these tools; occasional problems can only be solved with the tools or with an equivalent computer application.
Scope of Fluid Mechanics As the name implies, fluid mechanics is the study of fluids at rest or in motion. It has traditionally been applied in such areas as the design of canal, levee, and dam systems; the design of pumps, compressors, and piping and ducting used in the water and air conditioning systems of homes and businesses, as well as the piping systems needed in chemical plants; the aerodynamics of automobiles and sub- and supersonic air- planes; and the development of many different flow measurement devices such as gas pump meters.
Some examples include environmental and energy issues e. These are just a small sampling of the newer areas of fluid mechanics. They illustrate how the dis- cipline is still highly relevant, and increasingly diverse, even though it may be thousands of years old. Definition of a Fluid We already have a common-sense idea of when we are working with a fluid, as opposed to a solid: Fluids tend to flow when we interact with them e.
Engineers need a more formal and precise definition of a fluid: A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously under the appli- cation of a shear tangential stress no matter how small the shear stress may be.
Because the fluid motion continues under the application of a shear stress, we can also define a fluid as any substance that cannot sustain a shear stress when at rest. Hence liquids and gases or vapors are the forms, or phases, that fluids can take.
We wish to dis- tinguish these phases from the solid phase of matter. We can see the difference between solid and fluid behavior in Fig. If we place a specimen of either substance between two plates Fig.
Note that a fluid in contact with a solid surface does not slip—it has the same velocity as that surface because of the no-slip condition, an exper- imental fact. We refer to solids as being elastic and fluids as being viscous. The idea that substances can be categorized as being either a solid or a liquid holds for most substances, but a number of substances exhibit both springiness and friction; they are viscoelastic.
Many biological tissues are viscoelastic. For example, the synovial fluid in human knee joints lubricates those joints but also absorbs some of the shock occurring during walking or running.
Note that the system of springs and shock absorbers comprising the car suspension is also viscoelastic, although the individual components are not. We will have more to say on this topic in Chapter 2. The basic laws, which are applicable to any fluid, are: On the other hand, in many problems it is necessary to bring into the analysis additional relations that describe the behavior of physical proper- ties of fluids under given conditions. For example, you probably recall studying properties of gases in basic physics or thermodynamics.
In Eq. Example 1. It is obvious that the basic laws with which we shall deal are the same as those used in mechanics and thermodynamics. Our task will be to formulate these laws in suitable forms to solve fluid flow problems and to apply them to a wide variety of situations.
We must emphasize that there are, as we shall see, many apparently simple problems in fluid mechanics that cannot be solved analytically. In basic mechanics, we made extensive use of the free-body diagram. We will use a system or a control volume, depending on the problem being studied. These concepts are identical to the ones you used in thermo- dynamics except you may have called them closed system and open system, respectively. We can use either one to get mathematical expressions for each of the basic laws.
In thermodynamics they were mostly used to obtain expressions for conservation of mass and the first and second laws of thermody- namics; in our study of fluid mechanics, we will be most interested in conservation of mass and Example 1.
Heat is added to the gas until it reaches a temperature of C. Determine the amount of heat added during the process. Governing equation: In thermodynamics our focus was energy; in fluid mechanics it will mainly be forces and motion.
We must always be aware of whether we are using a system or a control volume approach because each leads to different mathematical expressions of these laws. At this point we review the definitions of systems and control volumes. System and Control Volume A system is defined as a fixed, identifiable quantity of mass; the system boundaries separate the system from the surroundings. The boundaries of the system may be fixed or movable; however, no mass crosses the system boundaries.
In the familiar piston-cylinder assembly from thermodynamics, Fig. If the gas is heated, the piston will lift the weight; the boundary of the system thus moves. Heat and work may cross the boundaries of the system, but the quantity of matter within the system boundaries remains fixed. No mass crosses the system boundaries. In mechanics courses you used the free-body diagram system approach extensively. This was log- ical because you were dealing with an easily identifiable rigid body. However, in fluid mechanics we normally are concerned with the flow of fluids through devices such as compressors, turbines, pipelines, nozzles, and so on.
In these cases it is difficult to focus attention on a fixed identifiable quantity of mass. It is much more convenient, for analysis, to focus attention on a volume in space through which the fluid flows. Consequently, we use the control volume approach.
A control volume is an arbitrary volume in space through which fluid flows. The geometric boundary of the control volume is called the control surface. The control surface may be real or imaginary; it may be at rest or in motion. Figure 1. It is always important to take care in selecting a control volume, as the choice has a big effect on the mathe- matical form of the basic laws. We will illustrate the use of a control volume with an example. Control volume Control surface 1 2 3 Fig.
Differential versus Integral Approach The basic laws that we apply in our study of fluid mechanics can be formulated in terms of infinitesimal or finite systems and control volumes. As you might suspect, the equations will look different in the two cases.
Both approaches are important in the study of fluid mechanics and both will be developed in the course of our work. In the first case the resulting equations are differential equations. Solution of the differential equa- tions of motion provides a means of determining the detailed behavior of the flow. An example might be the pressure distribution on a wing surface. Frequently the information sought does not require a detailed knowledge of the flow. We often are interested in the gross behavior of a device; in such cases it is more appropriate to use integral formulations of the basic laws.
An example might be the overall lift a wing produces. Integral formula- tions, using finite systems or control volumes, usually are easier to treat analytically. The basic laws of mechanics and thermodynamics, formulated in terms of finite systems, are the basis for deriving the control volume equations in Chapter 4. Methods of Description Mechanics deals almost exclusively with systems; you have made extensive use of the basic equations applied to a fixed, identifiable quantity of mass.
On the other hand, attempting to analyze thermody- namic devices, you often found it necessary to use a control volume open system analysis. Clearly, the type of analysis depends on the problem.
If the steady inlet speed averaged across the inlet area is 2: Exit speed, Ve. The physical law we use here is the conservation of mass, which you learned in thermodynamics when studying turbines, boilers, and so on.
We will use the density form of the equation. Hence the mass flow is: Even though we are already familiar with this equation from thermodynamics, we will derive it in Chapter 4. Where it is easy to keep track of identifiable elements of mass e.
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