Estimating and costing in civil engineering book pdf

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Estimating and Costing in Civil Engineering Theory and Practice Book By B.N. Dutta – PDF Free Download Estimation and Costing By B.N. Dutta. Download. Download Estimating and Costing in Civil Engineering PDF book for FREE. Images for estimating and costing of civil engineering projects. Civil Engineering . quantities for detailed and abstract estimates - Approximate method of. Estimating. Detailed construction. TEXT BOOKS. 1. Estimating and Costing by B.N. Dutta, UBS publishers, , and Civil Engineering works – B.L.S.). Estimation.

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Estimation and costing by dutta pdf free download estimation and costing civil engineering book. B N Datta Estimation and costing Book free. Dutta, B.N., “Estimating and Costing in Civil Engineering”, UBS Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd., 2. Kohli, D.D and Kohli, R.C., “A Text Book of Estimating. Estimating and Costing is a core subject in civil engineering courses. Students need a clear understanding of this subject as it teaches them various aspects of.

Welcome to EasyEngineering, One of the trusted educational blog. Political Science. Present day cost of a Engineering structure Saleable value Cost: Vukasin Taskovic. After the terrazzo concrete has hardened enough to prevent dislodgement of aggregate, it shall be ground down with an approved type of grinding machine shod with free rapid cutting carborundum stones to expose the coarse aggregate. Dutta Free Downlaod. Conglomerate floor, 4 cm.

Earnest money to the bidders of rejected tenders is retuned. Signature of each contractor is taken as a token of certificate that tenders were opened in their presence and the allotment has been done to the right bidder. Contract agreement It is a contact deed between the government and the contractor. Divisional engineer signs on behalf of government.

He is responsible for correct preparation and execution of the agreement.

Estimating and Costing in Civil Engineering Theory and Practice Including Specifications An

The condition of the different departments varies for the preparation of the contract agreement. Preferably these be between the framework of manual of order. This number should be quoted for future correspondence.

A copy of each of the following is forwarded here with: Valuation means fixation of cost or return expected of a building, engineering structure project Govt. The value of a structure may be more or less depending upon the present utility of a structure.

For example, a house having a number of rooms but smaller in size will fetch less value than a house, may be smaller in area but having well planned and proper sized of rooms.

Necessity of Valuation The following reasons necessitates the valuation of property: For taking out on insurance policies. Roll of an Engineer The roll of an Engineer in valuation is felt when an Engineering structure is to be valued, if and when it is: The following factors require consideration for valuation: The Orientation of the building is according to Engineering rules.

It will fetch more cost than a building which is in a neglected condition and is locate at unhealthy site. Workmanship I attractive and the building is properly maintained, it will fetch more cost than the building in a neglected form with poor quality of material used. According to specifications a building is divided in four classes: Present day cost of a Engineering structure Saleable value Cost: Original cost of construction.

It is used to find out the loss of value of property due to various reasons. Net Income: Total amount of the income received from a property during the year, without deducting outgoing. Gross Income: Total amount of the income received form a property during the year, without deducting outgoing. Net income: An amount left at the end of the year after deducting all usual outgoings.

Out goings: The following are-various outgoings. This includes, chowkidar sweeper etc. These repairs are must to maintain the building. Lighting of common place, expenditure of liftman etc. This has to be deducted from gross income. Free hold Property: The owner can use the property in an way he likes. But he will have to follow constraints fixed by town planners or Municipality before doing any construction.

Lease hold: In case of building, the lease is for 99 years to 9 years. The owner who gives facilities is known as Servant owner and who enjoys facilities is called Dominant owner. Scrap Value: The amount is known as Scrap Value of a building. C structure, as in the latter case, the material has less reuse value. Salvage Value: For example, railway sleepers can be re-used as posts and even old iron rails taken out can be used as beams in a roof or sheds of a building.

Building Cost Index: For instance taking as abase year, the present as Building Cost Index may be taken 1. Capitalized value: To calculate the capitalized value, it is necessary to know highest rate of interest prevailing on such properties and net income form the property.

Sinking Fund: The sinking funds may be found out by taking a sinking fund policy with any insurance company or depositing some amount in the bank. Generally while calculating the sinking fund, life of the building is considered.

Assuming the life of the machine as 20 years. In certain cases, old buildings are purchased and in that case scrap value into be deducted from the amount spent so as to calculate the amount of Sinking fund. An old shop in the main market has been purchased by a person as a cost of Rs. Calculate the amount available at the end 50 years for Re. Find out the present value of Re. It may be defined as the figure which when multiplied by the net income from a property gives capitalized value of the property.

And so on. Market Value: It is defined as the value which a property can fetch when sold out in open market. This value is variable, depending upon the will to buy or sell. Book Value: It is the amount of a property shown in the books, after allowing necessary depreciations year-wise.

The book value is independent of market-value. The loss thus involve in the value of properties known as Depreciation. This method has already been health with in details in the previous chapters. The plain the area is multiplied with plinth area rate.

Detailed measurements of the building are taken and multiplied by current rates, sub-head-wise. The current rates are taken from schedule of rates and premium is added to it. B The value of the total construction is found out from the records entered in the measurement book. In this method, old cost is noted and is multiplied by the increase in price index i. This depreciation increases with the time. The following are the values of rd for different structures.

This life depends upon the durability of various materials used. Thus by seeing specification the life of a structure can be found out.

The following chart shown expected life of the various materials and constructions. The following are the various methods of valuation: Life of each portion is found out using Table A.

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This value does not in clued cost of land, water supply, sanitary fitting, electric installations etc. The cost of above items are added to get the total valuation of property. The estimated cost of a building is Rs. The life of the structure is assumed to be 80 years. Work out the cost of building for acquisition solution. The built up area is sq. The plinth area rate of this 1st class building is Rs. This rates includes cost of water supply, sanitary and electric installation.

The age of the building is 40 years. The cost of the land is Rs. Find out depreciated value if the life of the building is 20 years. Located at sui9table places is done where profit is of capitalized value. The net profit is worked out after deducting all possible outgoings and expenditures from the gross income. In such cases the cost will be too high as compared with the cost of construction actually incurred.

In certain cases, some additions, alterations and improvements are carried out which increases the cost of the building. The valuator should be careful while doing evaluation about this. In cases, when the building is still under development. In this case the future development of the building and profits from it should be anticipated while evaluating. In this method the net income by the war of way of rent is found out after deducting all out goings from the gross income.

The practice in P. The total expenditure incurred on the construction i.

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This is also known as Standard Rent. If a land is purchased for the construction of the building, its cost should also be added while calculating the Rental statement. To get the gross rent, outgoings such as annual repairs, municipal which will give rent per month.

This is also known as standard rent. In case of private properties, the rent depends upon the situation, demand, type of construction, accommodation and facilities provided. For example a property used for Hotel, Cinema, Bank or Shop, located in the main market will fetch more rent than actually calculated. The constructions to be done is of A class specifications. The water supply is from a common source. Prepare rental statement also. C framed structure building having estimated future life of 80 years, fetches a gross annual rent of Rs.

The plot measures sq. The other out goings are: There is no proposal to set up a sinking fund. They must follow the rules as mentioned in Departmental Financial Rules D. R manual in case of any fault on the part the officers, there is no rule to absolve them of their responsibility to apply the rules.

Postal stamps, national saving certificates, government securities, bonds etc. Cash Book It is a very important book maintained in a division and sub-division. This book has record of all transactions i. It is maintained on P. Form I.

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The pages of the register are machine numbered. Such page has receipt side on the left and payment side on the right. Maintenance of Cash Book All transactions of cash receipts and payment of a division or sub-division taking place, day by day, are recorded in register P.

Each page has receipt side on the left having 5 columns and payment side on the right having 7 columns. The points to be kept in mind are as under: All transactions should be maintained in the cash book by Divisional Engineer or S.

All entries in the cash book must be made day by day in the concise and clear manner and transactions invariably recorded at the time and on the date on which they actually occur and strictly in order of their occurrence.

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Interpolation of entries should be avoided but when it becomes necessary to make an entry between two ruled lines or make any addition or alterations, these entries should be duly attested with signatures.

Incorrect entries should be crossed and correct entries written should be duly attested with dated initials of the disbursing officer. The S. The same blank space should be cancelled with diagonal lines. On payment side, there are two money columns, column 9 is meant for cast payment while columns 10 and 11 for payment by cheques. The cash in chest must be kept as low as possible.

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The cash book must be checked by S. After checking both sides accounts, dated initials should be put under last entry. When a cheque is issued to add cash in the chest, its amount and number are recorded on payment side. The account is simultaneously entered on receipt side as cash from treasury.

When a new cheque is issued against a Time barred or lost cheque, the entry in red ink is made in column 8 only.

The amount of the cheque is not to be shown in column When a cheque previously issued is to be cancelled, a minus entry in column 11 should be shown. A cross reference against original entry is necessary. Reason of cancellation should also be given. Temporary advance or Imprest given should be entered in column 8, in red ink.

The amount is not entered in column 9 as it still forms the part of cash. In the column of money, only increase or decrease of imprest is recorded. The cash book should be balanced on the date prescribed for closing of cash book accounts of the month. It is advisable to have weekly balancing if entries are numbered.

The details of actual cash found at the monthly counting should be recorded in form P. Whenever it is found that cash in the chest is not as per balance of the cash book, it should unless the error can be detected, be set right at once, be rectified forthwith by making the necessary receipts or payment entry. As the case may be. The actual balance of cash in each chest should be counted on the last working day of each month.

The details of actual balance should be recorded and a certificate of the count of cash specifying both in the words and figures, the actual cash balance excluding imprest an temporary advance and reconciliation of the balance so counted with the book balance should be recorded below the entry of each month. The cash book should always be kept under lock and key. The cash related to this cash book is kept separate from that of main cash book.

Cash book is not follows. It becomes an irregularity, Although these irregularities may be of minor nature, but their impact may nor be that minor. The common irregularities are as under: Imprest It is maintained on form P. The power to gave imprest to an individual is given by a competent authority, with the understanding that no prior sanction is necessary for making payment.

Mainterance of Imprest Account 1. The fixed amount of imprest is entered in red ink in column 5. If additional amount is taken during the month, it is also entered in the same way. Entry for payment should be done strictly in accordance with their occurrence. For keeping record of imprest, no other advance should be mixed with the imprest amount.

The column 3 of the form is meant for full description of the work done or supplies made and name of the work for which purchase has been done. Account of imprest should be closed at least 2 days before the closing of cash book. Imprest Cash Accounts Impreset cash book of Sh……………………………………….

Cash Payment Account 1 2 3 4 5 6 Temporary Advance This is an advance given to a subordinate by the disbursing officer to enable him to make certain specific payments, such as payment to labour engaged on muster roll, pay-bill of work-charged establishment or any other payment for which passing orders have already been give. The account of temporary advance is entered in form P. The balance after disbursing the amount should be deposited back, as early as possible.

Treasury Challans Any payment to be made to any govt. For this purpose, challan form A is filled in triplicate. The form shows name and address of the depositor, full particulars for which the deposit is done, Head of account and orders to the bank. With a good subject knowledge in civil engg i have started this blog to share valuable information to fellow civil engineers. You can also follow me on fb and twitter by clicking below.

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