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University physics 14th edition pdf

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SearS and ZemanSky'S univeRSitY PHYSiCS WitH moDeRn PHYSiCS 14tH eDition HugH D. Young RogeR A. FReeDmAn University of California, Santa. Physics with Calculus. Contribute to RandyMcMillan/PHY development by creating an account on GitHub. HugH D. Young RogeR A. FReeDmAn University of California Santa Barbara ContRibuting AutHoR A. LeWiS FoRD Texas AM University univeRSitY PHYSiCS WitH moDeRn PHYSiCS 14tH eDition SearS and ZemanSky’S subiecte.info 1 08/11/14 AM. Roger A. Freedman is a.

From examining the results of his experiments which were actually much more sophisticated than in the legend he made the inductive leap to the principle or theory that the acceleration of a falling object is independent of its weight. Premium member. We use the term antiparticle for a particle that is related to another particle as the positron is to the electron. In other cases we define a physical quantity by describing how to calculate it from other quantities that we can measure. If we drop the feather and the cannon- ball in a vacuum to eliminate the effects of the air then they do fall at the same rate. Chadwick christened these particles neutrons symbol n or 1 0 n.

No theory is ever regarded as the final or ultimate truth. The possibility al- ways exists that new observations will require that a theory be revised or dis- carded. It is in the nature of physical theory that we can disprove a theory by finding behavior that is inconsistent with it but we can never prove that a theory is always correct.

Getting back to Galileo suppose we drop a feather and a cannonball. They certainly do not fall at the same rate. This does not mean that Galileo was wrong it means that his theory was incomplete.

If we drop the feather and the cannon- ball in a vacuum to eliminate the effects of the air then they do fall at the same rate. It applies only to objects for which the force exerted by the air due to air resistance and buoyancy is much less than the weight.

Objects like feathers or parachutes are clearly outside this range.

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How do you learn to solve physics problems In every chapter of this book you will find Problem-Solving Strategies that offer techniques for setting up and solving problems efficiently and accurately. Following each Problem-Solving Strategy are one or more worked Examples that show these techniques in action. The Problem-Solving Strategies will also steer you away from some incorrect techniques that you may be tempted to use.

Study these strategies and problems carefully and work through each example for yourself on a piece of paper. Different techniques are useful for solving different kinds of physics prob- lems which is why this book offers dozens of Problem-Solving Strategies.

These same steps are equally useful for problems in math engineering chemistry and many other fields. All of the Problem-Solving Strategies and Examples in this book will follow these four steps. In some cases we will combine the first two or three steps. We encourage you to follow these same steps when you solve problems yourself. Use the physical conditions stated in the problem to help you decide which physics concepts are rel- evant.

Identify the known quantities as stated or implied in the problem. This step is essential whether the problem asks for an algebraic expression or a numerical answer. Make sure that the variables you have identified correlate exactly with those in the equations. If appropriate draw a sketch of the situation described in the problem. Graph paper ruler pro - tractor and compass will help you make clear useful sketches. As best you can estimate what your results will be and as ap - propriate predict what the physical behavior of a system will be.

The worked examples in this book include tips on how to make these kinds of estimates and predictions. If your an- swer includes an algebraic expression assure yourself that it correctly represents what would happen if the variables in it had very large or very small values. For future reference make note of any answer that represents a quantity of particular significance.

Ask yourself how you might answer a more general or more dif- ficult version of the problem you have just solved. Problem-Solving STraTegy 1. In physics a model is a simplified version of a physical system that would be too complicated to analyze in full detail. For example suppose we want to analyze the motion of a thrown baseball Fig.

How complicated is this problem The ball is not a perfect sphere it has raised seams and it spins as it moves through the air. If we try to include all these things the analysis gets hopelessly com - plicated. Instead we invent a simplified version of the problem. We ignore the size and shape of the ball by representing it as a point object or particle.

We ignore air resistance by making the ball move in a vacuum and we make the weight constant. Now we have a problem that is simple enough to deal with Fig. We will analyze this model in detail in Chapter 3.

Physics 14th pdf university edition

We have to overlook quite a few minor effects to make an idealized model but we must be careful not to neglect too much. If we ignore the effects of grav- ity completely then our model predicts that when we throw the ball up it will go in a straight line and disappear into space.

A useful model simplifies a problem enough to make it manageable yet keeps its essential features. Direction of motion Direction of motion Treat the baseball as a point object particle. No air resistance. Baseball spins and has a complex shape. Air resistance and wind exert forces on the ball. Gravitational force on ball depends on altitude.

Gravitational force on ball is constant.

This model works fairly well for a dropped cannonball but not so well for a feather. Idealized models play a crucial role throughout this book. Watch for them in discussions of physical theories and their applications to specific problems. Experiments require measurements and we generally use numbers to describe the results of measurements. Any number that is used to describe a physical phenomenon quantitatively is called a physical quantity.

For example two physical quanti - ties that describe you are your weight and your height.

Some physical quantities are so fundamental that we can define them only by describing how to measure them. Such a definition is called an operational definition.

Two examples are measuring a distance by using a ruler and measuring a time interval by using a stopwatch. In other cases we define a physical quantity by describing how to calculate it from other quantities that we can measure. Thus we might define the average speed of a moving object as the distance traveled measured with a ruler divided by the time of travel measured with a stopwatch.

When we measure a quantity we always compare it with some reference stan - dard. When we say that a Ferrari Italia is 4. Such a standard defines a unit of the quantity. The meter is a unit of distance and the second is a unit of time. To make accurate reliable measurements we need units of measurement that do not change and that can be duplicated by observers in various locations.

Pdf university physics 14th edition

Appendix A gives a list of all SI units as well as definitions of the most fundamental units. Time From until the unit of time was defined as a certain fraction of the mean solar day the average time between successive arrivals of the sun at its highest point in the sky. The present standard adopted in is much more precise. It is based on an atomic clock which uses the energy difference between the two lowest energy states of the cesium atom Cs.

Edition university pdf 14th physics

When bombarded by microwaves of precisely the proper frequency cesium atoms undergo a transition from one of these states to the other.

One second abbreviated s is defined as the time required for cycles of this microwave radiation Fig. Length In an atomic standard for the meter was also established using the wavelength of the orange-red light emitted by excited atoms of krypton 1 86 Kr2.

From this length standard the speed of light in vacuum was measured to be ms. In November the length standard was changed again so that the speed of light in vacuum was defined to be precisely ms. These measurements are useful for setting standards because they give the same results no matter where they are made.

Light source Cesium atom Cesium atom Microwave radiation with a frequency of exactly cycles per second An atomic clock uses this phenomenon to tune microwaves to this exact frequency. It then counts 1 second for each cycles. Light travels exactly m in 1 s. This modern definition provides a much more precise standard of length than the one based on a wave- length of light.

An atomic standard of mass would be more fundamental but at present we cannot measure masses on an atomic scale with as much accuracy as on a macroscopic scale.

The gram which is not a fundamental unit is 0. Other derived units can be formed from the fundamental units. For example the units of speed are meters per second or ms these are the units of length m divided by the units of time s. Unit Prefixes Once we have defined the fundamental units it is easy to introduce larger and smaller units for the same physical quantities. In the metric system these other units are related to the fundamental units or in the case of mass to the gram by multiples of 10 or 1 10 Thus one kilometer 11 km2 is meters and one centi- meter 11 cm2 is 1 meter.

We usually express multiples of 10 or 1 10 in exponential notation: With this notation 1 km 10 3 m and 1 cm 10 -2 m. The names of the additional units are derived by adding a prefix to the name of the fundamental unit. Table 1. Dust Stars 5 light-years Gas W hat are the most fundamental constituents of matter How did the universe begin And what is the fate of our universe In this chapter we will explore what physicists and astronomers have learned in their quest to answer these questions.

14th university edition pdf physics

Fun - damental particles are the smallest things in the universe and cosmology deals with the biggest thing there is—the universe itself. The development of high-energy accelerators and associated detectors has been crucial in our emerging understanding of particles.

We can classify par - ticles and their interactions in several ways in terms of conservation laws and symmetries some of which are absolute and others of which are obeyed only in certain kinds of interactions. In about b. This idea lay dormant until about when the English scientist John Dalton — often called the father of modern chemistry discovered that many chemical phenomena could be explained if atoms of each element are the basic indivisible building blocks of matter.

The characteristic spectra of elements suggested that atoms have internal structure This image shows a por- tion of the Eagle Nebula a region some light-years away where new stars are forming.

University physics (14th edition) pdf

Looking back at … In Rutherford made an additional discovery: When alpha particles are fired into nitrogen one product is hydrogen gas. He reasoned that the hydrogen nucleus is a constituent of the nuclei of heavier atoms such as nitrogen and that a collision with a fast-moving alpha particle can dislodge one of those hydrogen nuclei.

Thus the hydrogen nucleus is an elementary particle that Rutherford named the proton. Physicists were on their way to understanding the principles that underlie atomic structure.

Atoms and nuclei can emit create and absorb destroy photons see Section Considered as particles photons have zero charge and zero rest mass.

In particle physics a photon is denoted by the symbol g the Greek letter gamma. Experiments by the English physicist James Chadwick in showed that the emitted particles were electrically neutral with mass approximately equal to that of the proton.

Chadwick christened these particles neutrons symbol n or 1 0 n.

University Physics (14th Edition)

This is the principle of the cloud chamber described below. Because neutrons have no charge they are difficult to detect directly they interact hardly at all with electrons and produce little ionization when they pass through matter. However neutrons can be slowed down by scattering from nuclei and they can penetrate a nucleus. Hence slow neutrons can be detected by means of a nuclear reaction in which a neutron is absorbed and an alpha particle is emitted. Later experi - ments showed that neutrons and protons like electrons are spin 1 2 particles see Section The discovery of the neutron cleared up a mystery about the composition of the nucleus.

Before the mass of a nucleus was thought to be due only to protons but no one understood why the charge-to-mass ratio was not the same for all nuclides. It soon became clear that all nuclides except 1 1 H contain both protons and neutrons. Hence the proton the neutron and the electron are the building blocks of atoms. However that is not the end of the particle story these are not the only particles and particles can do more than build atoms. The photograph was made by Carl D.

Anderson in Positron track Lead plate 6 mm thick The positron follows a curved path owing to the presence of a magnetic field. The track is more strongly curved above the lead plate showing that the positron was traveling upward and lost energy and speed as it passed through the plate. Figure The chamber contained a supercooled vapor a charged particle passing through the vapor causes ionization and the ions trigger the condensation of liquid droplets from the vapor.

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